Europe has many immigrant and refugee adults with a low level of education, who lack basic skills such as reading and writing in both their native language and second language. However, the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) (Council of Europe, 2001) departs from the basic level of primary school and implicitly assumes that adults are readers and writers.
This does not correspond to reality. In addition to a high number of low-literate native-born adult residents, Europe counts many non-literate adults that who need to learn to read and write for the first time in a language other than their mother tongue. The numbers of non-literates and low-literates (unable to read and write well enough to use these skills in their daily lives) differ from country to country, but are between 10